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  • Basic pharmacology of therapeutic agents including pharmacodynamics and comparative pharmacokinetics and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling
  • Basic and molecular toxicology including principles of mechanisms of action, dose-response relationships, factors determining the susceptibility of animals to toxic compounds, absorption, bioactivation compared with detoxification, and excretion of toxic substances
  • Therapeutic indications
  • Adverse effects of therapeutic agents
  • Risk assessment
    • hazard identification, hazard characterization, quantitative exposure assessment and risk assessment
  • Regulatory toxicology
    • common experimental models in acute and chronic toxicity testing, reproductive/endocrine toxicology, immune toxicology, genotoxicity and carcinogenicity testing
  • Sampling techniques, analytical methods and their validation as used to detect and quantify toxins or xenobiotics in the environment, in animal feeds, and in animal body fluids and tissues

GABA receptorTherapeutic and toxic agents

Including the following classes of therapeutic and toxic agents

  • Central and peripheral nervous systems
  • Pain control and anaesthesia
    • including general and local anaesthetics, sedatives, tranquillisers and drugs acting at the neuromuscular junction Sites of action of selected agents in GABA receptor
  • Anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesics
  • Antimicrobial, antifungal and antiparasitics (including feed additives), disinfectants, antiseptics and resistance
  • Anti-neoplastic agents
  • Blood, blood-forming organs and the immune system
  • Cardiovascular system, urogenital system and renal function
  • Endocrine systems, including hormones and hormone-like compounds
  • Gastrointestinal system (including the liver and pancreas)
  • Respiratory system
  • Skin (systemic and topical)
  • Eye (systemic and topical)
  • Vitamins and minerals as therapeutic agents
  • Water-, salt-, ion-, and acid-base balance including principles of fluid therapy
  • Basic knowledge of veterinary toxicology regarding common toxins and poisons and first line treatment of intoxications
  • Inorganic compounds (acid/alkali, metals and non-metallic elements)
  • Natural toxins: phytotoxins, phycotoxins and mycotoxins
  • Persistent organic environmental pollutants (such as dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and related compounds)
  • Pesticides, including insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, rodenticides and related compounds
  • Radioactive compounds

Relevant principles

  • Clinical pharmacology
    • the effects of disease on drug disposition, therapeutic drug monitoring and Bayesian approaches used in establishing and adapting dosage regimens
  • Clinical toxicology
    • mechanisms involved in organ damage (hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity, carcinogenicity, reproductive toxicity and others)
  • Toxicokinetic/toxicodynamic modelling to assess toxin or xenobiotic disposition and carry over of substances into edible tissues
  • Evi dence-based veterinary medicine
  • Good Practices (as for example Good Clinical Practice (GCPv), Good Laboratory Practice (GLP), Good Agricultural Practice (GAP))
  • Legal and regulatory evaluation and authorization as related to drug use
    • prescriptions, off-label use and controlled substances, and toxic agents (including disinfectants and pesticides ) and chemicals
    • definitions of use (precautionary measures, environmental risks, occupational health risks)
  • Application of statistics to design and evaluate studies, to plan experimental design, including the design of preclinical and clinical trials toxicological and epidemiological studies and exposure studies
  • Analytical methods and their validation as used to detect and quantify drugs, toxins and their metabolites in animal body fluids and tissues and the environment
  • Pharmaco- and toxico-epidemiology
  • Pharmaco- and toxicovigilance
  • Marketing authorisation of drugs, pesticides, fungicides and related compounds in the EU, including withdrawal times and evaluation of residues
  • Techniques applied in molecular biology, including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and pharmaco- and toxicogenetics


Integration of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics


Last Updated on Monday, 05 December 2016 12:21
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